Hormones are type of chemical messengers that are responsible in regulating normal functions of the various tissues and organs inside the body. They travel through the bloodstream carrying sensory messages to the brain which gives out the command for organs to perform their daily function; thus, affecting the metabolism, growth and body development, sexual functions, as well as mood.
However, hormones need to be at a proper balance to maintain its functions. According to studies, hormonal balance can be greatly affected by human activities. For instance, poor diet and stress firstly affects the neurotransmitters which are also responsible in influencing the production of hormones, When these are disturb, this result to various changes not only in the functions of bodily organs but also to the human emotion. This when a person feels depress, experience mood swings, or suddenly suffer from fatigue and restlessness.
Humans are comprised of a wide variety of hormones in the body which are mainly produced by a specialized group of cells known as Endocrine glands. However, there are some specific hormones that greatly affect human emotions. These hormones include Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, Norepinephrine and Epinephrine, Serotonin, GABA, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, and Oxytocin.
Estrogen is the primary sex hormone of women that is produced by the ovaries. This type of hormone holds importance in the capability of women to ovulate regularly and conceive a child. However, its effects to women’s emotion set in when its level is too high or too low. Just as estrogen level decreases at the threshold of menopausal, or when estrogen increases by too much exposure to chemical hazards, women may start to feel increase level of anxiety and mood swing. Aside from its negative impact to health, this also results to irritability and confusion.
Progesterone is another hormone which serves as a key element to reproductive success in women. This however, has greater influence to brain while its effect to emotion depends on its balance with estrogen. While this hormone is responsible in promoting good sleep and improving libido, imbalance of such can lead to insomnia, headaches, and anxiety.
Testosterone is a hormone produced by men through the testes. Proper balance of this hormone is needed to increase production and motility of sperm. Otherwise, imbalance of such would result to decreased sex drive in men that are sometimes brought about by erectile dysfunction as well as fatigue and low sperm production. This is also when men suffer from fertility issues and experience a hard time achieving conception with the partner.
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
Norepinephrine is another type of hormone that greatly affects emotion. Also known as noradrenalin, this type of hormone functions like adrenaline which surge at times of panic and emergency. When a person is at jeopardy, this hormone works to provoke the stress hormone and cause the blood pressure to rise while leaving the body with high temperature, speedy metabolism, and faster heart rate which makes the person more alert and focused. On the other hand, Epinephrine is another type of adrenaline which also brings out the arousal of extreme emotions such as fear, anger, or amusement in reaction with the different instances a person is involved in. People commonly call emotions that are related to such as “adrenaline rush.”
Serotonin is a type of hormone that shows up in the intestines and blood vessels which functions as an anti-depressant in the body. In this case, this hormone helps make one feels energetic and calm throughout the day. In case when there is low serotonin level, a person may become aggressive and impulsive and will have difficulty in coping up strong emotions such as depression and sensitivity.
Gamma-Amino Butyric acid or GABA, is type of neurotransmitter that greatly affects the growth hormone of humans. While it also acts as an anti-anxiety and anti-pain, GABA helps one achieve a good sleep. GABA can also be taken as a relaxant; however, low level of such makes one feel restless and anxious. Most bipolar patients are found to have lower GABA.
Dopamine is largely involved in the function of main organs in the body such as the heart, muscle control, and ovulation. Like Serotonin and Norepinephrine, Dopamine also works to promote well being in humans by carrying important messages through the neural pathway of the brain. However, low levels of such can cause mood swings and cognitive problems. In this case, a person may feel depressed and worried.
Acetylcholine is a type of hormone that tempers more severe effects of adrenaline to humans. In this case, when a person is angry, Acetylcholine weakens the heart and stiffens arteries which trigger one to feel various other emotions such as depression and anxiety which then leads one to suddenly burst out into tears. Complications; however, set in when person has high cholesterol as this would trigger to a heart attack.
Oxytocin is another type of hormone that is responsible for reproductive function in humans and is released during sexual orgasm in couples. Some call this as love hormone while this also helps build good interpersonal relationship in couples as well as good psychological effects to one. In this case, the release of such hormone leads one to feel positive emotions towards the opposite sex like love or infatuation.